The Fundamentals of E&M coding: An Overview

Highcare RCM

In the realm of medical coding, Evaluation and Management codes, commonly known as E&M codes, play a crucial role in accurately documenting and billing for services provided by the physicians or other qualified healthcare professionals. E&M codes are drawn from the range of CPT codes, specifically from 99202 to 99499. Essentially, these codes are used when a provider is engaged in the evaluation or management of a patient’s health.

E&M codes are a fundamental aspect of medical billing and are widely utilized by various healthcare specialists, including specialty care consultants, emergency room physicians, and primary care providers. From routine office visits and hospital consultations to home services and preventive medicine, a wide range of medical interactions fall under the purview of E&M codes.

Understanding E&M CPT codes:

The foundation of Evaluation and Management coding lies within the Current Procedural Terminology, also known as CPT-4, which is a standardized numerical coding system maintained by the American Medical Association (AMA). The CPT-4 system comprises descriptive terms and corresponding codes that serve as a common language for identifying medical services and procedures provided by

It is vital to mention that E&M codes constitute a critical part of the CPT-4 system and undergo periodic review by the AMA to ensure their accuracy and relevance in the ever-evolving landscape of healthcare practices.

E&M codes are classified into the following categories (as per 2023 AMA updates):

Office/Other Outpatient Services (99202-99215)

Hospital Inpatient and Observation Care Services (99221-99239)

Consultations (99242-99255)

Emergency Department Services (99281-99288)

Critical Care Services (99291-99292)

Nursing facility Services (99304-99316)

Home Health Services (99341-99350)

Prolonged Services (99358-99360)

Case Management Services (99366-99368)

Care Plan Oversight Services (99374-99380)

Preventive Medicine Services (99381-99429)

Non-Face-to-Face Services (99441-99458)

Special Evaluation and Management Services (99450-99456)

Newborn Care Services (99460-99463)

Inpatient Neonatal Intensive, and Pediatric/Neonatal Critical Care Services (99466-99480)

Care Management Services (99490-99427)

Transitional Care Management Services (99495-99496)

Other Evaluation and Management Services (99499)

Basic Guidelines and Key Components of E&M CPT Codes:

Understanding the basic guidelines of E&M CPT codes by Physicians and Coders is important to accurately select the code of E&M level. It helps healthcare organizations to obtain the appropriate reimbursement from public and private health insurance.

We should carefully consider the following elements before assign E&M codes,

  • Patient type, New or Established patient
  • Service Setting, whether office/outpatient visits or Emergency Department visits or any other settings.

The Key elements for the E&M level selection are,

Medical Decision Making (MDM):                  

Four types of MDM are recognized: straightforward, low, moderate, and high.

MDM is defined by three elements. The elements are,

  • The number and complexity of problem(s) that are addressed during the encounter.
  • The amount and/or complexity of data to be reviewed and analyzed.
  • The risk of complications and/or morbidity or mortality of patient management.

We should not count the interpretation and/or report during the E&M level selection, when physician reporting a separate CPT code for that interpretation and/or report.

Click here to access the latest E&M MDM table released by AMA.


For coding purposes time for the E&M services is the total time on the date of the encounter.  It includes both face-to-face and non-face-to-face time with patient and/or family/caregiver. Time includes the following activities,

  • Preparing to see the patient (eg, review of tests)
  • Obtaining and/or reviewing separately obtained history
  • Performing a medically appropriate examination and/or evaluation
  • Counseling and educating the patient/family/caregiver
  • Ordering medications, tests, or procedures
  • Referring and communicating with other health care professionals (when not separately reported)
  • Documenting clinical information in the electronic or other health record
  • Independently interpreting results (not separately reported) and communicating results to the patient/family/caregiver
  • Care coordination (not separately reported)

It does not include the performance of other separately reported services, any travel time and general teaching which is not related to the management of a specific patient.

History and Examination:

The nature and extent of the history and/or physical examination are determined by the treating physician or other qualified health care professional reporting the service. And it should be medically appropriate. However, extent of history and physical examination is not an element in selection of the level of E&M service codes.

Prolonged Services:

Prolonged services refer to specific codes utilized when a physician extends direct patient contact beyond the usual time in either the inpatient or outpatient setting. A separate of codes should be used for prolonged services that do not involve direct patient contacts.

Commonly Used E&M Modifiers:

Modifiers play a critical role in E&M coding, offering additional information about the services provided. They are essential for indicating special circumstances and ensuring accurate reimbursement. Some commonly used E&M modifiers include:

   -25:  Significant, Separately Identifiable Evaluation and Management Service by the Same Physician or Other Qualified Health Care Professional on the Same Day of the Procedure or Other Service

   -57: Decision for Surgery

  -59: Distinct Procedural Service

  -95: Synchronous Telemedicine Service Rendered via a Real-Time Interactive Audio and Video Telecommunications System

Compliance and Audit Considerations:

To safeguard against potential coding errors and compliance issues, physicians and coders must be diligent in their documentation and coding practices. Essential compliance and audit considerations include:

Regular Auditing and Education:

          The importance of periodic E&M coding audits to identify and rectify coding discrepancies.

          Providing continuous education to physicians and coders on coding updates and best practices.

Upcoding and Downcoding:

          Understanding the risks associated with upcoding (coding for higher-level services than warranted) and downcoding (coding for lower-level services than documented).

Proper Use of Modifiers:

          Ensuring correct and appropriate use of E&M modifiers to avoid billing inaccuracies.

CMS Reimbursement Trends for E&M services:

The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) recognizes CPT-4 as Level-I Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) for provider reimbursement. This highlights the significant role E&M codes play in determining healthcare provider compensation within the framework of CMS reimbursement methodology.

Over the past few years, CMS has implemented enhanced reimbursement for E&M codes, resulting in increased payments for various specialties. Notably, endocrinologists, rheumatologists, hematologists/oncologists, family physicians, and psychiatrists are among the healthcare professionals who have experienced these positive changes in reimbursement.

As the healthcare landscape continues to evolve, staying up-to-date with E&M coding changes and best practices is vital for providing quality patient care and maintaining financial viability for healthcare practices. Empowered with the knowledge shared in this article, you can confidently navigate the intricacies of E&M coding and contribute to the efficiency and success of your practice.

At High Care RCM Services, we understand the importance of accurate coding and efficient revenue cycle management for healthcare providers. Contact us today to discover how our comprehensive RCM services can streamline your billing processes and enable you to focus on delivering exceptional patient care.

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